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Reload to refresh your session. You signed out in another tab or window. As well as communicating with other Ethereum nodes, the execution and consensus clients have to communicate with each other. This page gives an introductory explanation of the protocols that enable this communication. Execution clients gossip transactions over the execution-layer peer-to-peer network.

This requires encrypted communication between authenticated peers. When a validator is selected to propose a block, transactions from the node's local transaction pool will be passed to consensus clients via a local RPC connection, which will be packaged into Beacon blocks. Consensus clients will then gossip Beacon blocks across their p2p network. This requires two separate p2p networks: one connecting execution clients for transaction gossip and one connecting consensus clients for block gossip.

Some knowledge of Ethereum nodes and clients will be helpful for understanding this page. The execution layer's networking protocols is divided into two stacks:. Both stacks work in parallel. The discovery stack feeds new network participants into the network, and the DevP2P stack enables their interactions. Discovery is the process of finding other nodes in network. This is bootstrapped using a small set of bootnodes nodes whose addresses are hardcoded into the client so they can be found immediately and connect the client to peers.

These bootnodes only exist to introduce a new node to a set of peers - this is their sole purpose, they do not participate in normal client tasks like syncing the chain, and they are only used the very first time a client is spun up. The protocol used for the node-bootnode interactions is a modified form of Kademlia which uses a distributed hash table to share lists of nodes. Each node has a version of this table containing the information required to connect to its closest peers.

This 'closeness' is not geographical - distance is defined by the similarity of the node's ID. Each node's table is regularly refreshed as a security feature. For example, in the Discv5 , discovery protocol nodes are also able to send 'ads' that display the subprotocols that the client supports, allowing peers to negotiate about the protocols they can both use to communicate over.

The initial message that alerts a bootnode to the existence of a new node entering the network is a PING. This PING includes hashed information about the new node, the bootnode and an expiry time-stamp.

The data returned by the bootnode includes a list of peers that the new node can connect to. Execution clients are currently using the Discv4 discovery protocol and there is an active effort to migrate to the Discv5 protocol.

The Ethereum Node Record ENR is an object that contains three basic elements: a signature hash of record contents made according to some agreed identity scheme , a sequence number that tracks changes to the record, and an arbitrary list of key:value pairs. This is a future-proof format that allows easier exchange of identifying information between new peers and is the preferred network address format for Ethereum nodes.

UDP does not support any error checking, resending of failed packets, or dynamically opening and closing connections - instead it just fires a continuous stream of information at a target, regardless of whether it is successfully received. This minimal functionality also translates into minimal overhead, making this kind of connection very fast. For discovery, where a node simply wants to make its presence known in order to then establish a formal connection with a peer, UDP is sufficient.

However, for the rest of the networking stack, UDP is not fit for purpose. The informational exchange between nodes is quite complex and therefore needs a more fully featured protocol that can support resending, error checking etc. The additional overhead associated with TCP is worth the additional functionality. DevP2P is itself a whole stack of protocols that Ethereum implements to establish and maintain the peer-to-peer network.

After new nodes enter the network, their interactions are governed by protocols in the DevP2P stack. RLPx is the protocol governing initiating, authenticating and maintaining sessions between nodes.

RLPx encodes messages using RLP Recursive Length Prefix which is a very space-efficient method of encoding data into a minimal structure for sending between nodes.

A RLPx session between two nodes begins with an initial cryptographic handshake. This involves the node sending an auth message which is then verified by the peer. On successful verification, the peer generates an auth-acknowledgement message to return to the initiator node. This is a key-exchange process that enables the nodes to communicate privately and securely. A successful cryptographic handshake then triggers both nodes to send a "hello" message to one another "on the wire".

The wire protocol is initiated by a successful exchange of hello messages. This is the information required for a successful interaction because it defines what capabilities are shared between both nodes and configures the communication.

There is a process of sub-protocol negotiation where the lists of sub-protocols supported by each node are compared and those that are common to both nodes can be used in the session. Along with the hello messages, the wire protocol can also send a "disconnect" message that gives warning to a peer that the connection will be closed. The RLPx and wire protocol exchanges therefore establish the foundations of communication between the nodes, providing the scaffolding for useful information to be exchanged according to a specific sub-protocol.

Once peers are connected, and an RLPx session has been started, the wire protocol defines how peers communicate. Initially, the wire protocol defined three main tasks: chain synchronization, block propagation and transaction exchange. However, once Ethereum switched to proof-of-stake, block propagation and chain synchronization became part of the consensus layer.

Transaction exchange is still in the remit of the execution clients. Transaction exchange refers to exchanging pending transactions between nodes so that miners can select some of them for inclusion in the next block. Detailed information about these tasks is available here. This is a minimal protocol for syncing light clients. Traditionally this protocol has rarely been used because full nodes are required to serve data to light clients without being incentivized.

The default behaviour of execution clients is not to serve light client data over les. More information is available in the les spec. The snap protocol is an optional extension that allows peers to exchange snapshots of recent states, allowing peers to verify account and storage data without having to download intermediate Merkle trie nodes.

The witness protocol is an optional extension that enables exchange of state witnesses between peers, helping to sync clients to the tip of the chain.

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Best platform for day trading crypto The consensus ethereum peer list implementation of discv5 differs from that of the execution clients only in that it includes an adaptor connecting discv5 into a libP2P stack, deprecating DevP2P. Detailed instructions for this are available on the Private Networks page. Add answer Cancel. For example, in the Discv5discovery protocol nodes are also able to send 'ads' ethereum peer list display the subprotocols that the client supports, allowing peers to negotiate about the protocols they can both use to communicate over. I see there's a function to get the number of nodes using the web3 api, but I need a list of node IDs or IPs.

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